blackfemalepresident:

black girls with eating disorders are so important & need to be protected

because it’s believed that we don’t think about things like that, we all apparently love our “inherently” thick bodies and thickness is something we all glorify and strive to achieve

we’re too “strong” to have any kind of illness, especially not an ED

EDs among black girls are so common and are easily dismissed as “white girl stuff” and thats so destructive and harmful

blackfashion:

Afro Punk 2K14
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blackfashion:

Afro Punk 2K14

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oh fuck guiliani / he’s such a fucking jerk

oh fuck guiliani / he’s such a fucking jerk

certifiedheathen:
i didn't compare disabled people to cats? directors need to make plot cuts so the movie won't be too long, and her deafness is a viable cut. as are the avoxes and peeta being an amputee. they are not vital to the plot.
Me:

yellowis4happy:

ruairidhohboi:

goldenheartedrose:

equalseleventhirds:

silversarcasm:

no fuck that, Peeta;s being disabled was so so fucking important to his character and his story, the avoxes meant everything to me as an occasionally nonverbal person

disabled people are always fucking vital and we have every fucking right to be pissed about the continuing dehumanisation and erasure of us

the avoxes were a frankly astounding metaphor for everything the capitol did to people: hunting down people who wanted to leave, silencing and enslaving anyone who rebelled, and perpetuating mutual fear of one another among the people so they wouldn’t form real connections with each other. what would’ve contributed more to the film, having ‘that is mahogany’ in it, or showing katniss meeting an avox and having haymitch or effie pull her away, tell her not to talk to them?

peeta’s disability was not only vital to his character and the way he would interact with the world post-THG, but could actually have been incorporated into the movie very easily; the ‘fall down and kiss in front of the camera’ scene, the ‘don’t look at me like i’m wounded’ scene, the bit at the beginning of the arena when he has to swim for his life, the dozens of parts where they have to run from something. how easy, how quick, and how poignant would it have been to just pan the camera over his prosthetic leg when he tells katniss not to pity him, to have katniss ask him how his leg’s holding up when they’re checking on each other between running for their lives?

don’t say ‘it wasn’t vital to the story’. there was a ton of shit that wasn’t vital, but they kept it in, or even added stuff. cutting out disabilities was a conscious choice.

This. All of this.

The prosthetic leg is what slips in the snow. The prosthetic leg is why that scene happens.

Katniss deafness and the fact that the capitol fixed it is what provides cover for finding the forcefield in the Quarter Quell.  

To the next person who says the Avoxes are not a vital part of the story and the setup: Castor and fucking Pollux are going to come out of fucking nowhere. And if they leave them out of the films, or take away Pollux’ disability (a little quick research says we’re safe from this), I will scream in the theatre and walk out. 

There was about one line in the first two films about Avoxes, and that was in a passing “Oh, they’ll cut out our tongues” in such a vague way that it sounds like they’re talking rumors. If you were looking and knew who was supposed to be what, you can see the inclusion of the Avoxes in certain scenes (Their costume is perfect. I wish we could have had some real scenes and more acting than “Stand there” and “deliver wine”), but it was just as furniture. Scene dressing. Which I must admit has a meaning of its own, but I would have loved to see the interactions with Lavinia… (By the by, I just have to point out how perfect her name is… Speak, Lavinia?)

Oh man oh man, I was thinking about this the other day, and everything above is so right. I can almost excuse them leaving out Katniss losing her hearing since that does get fixed right away, but that’s before considering how she excuses knowing where the forcefield is in the Quarter Quell, which is pretty fucking important.

I can see also how fitting Lavinia’s story into the movie would have been hard, but that doesn’t mean they couldn’t have had a teeny blurb with Katniss or Peeta going, “Hey Effie/Haymitch, how come our servers never speak?” or one of them trying to talk to one of the Avoxes and being told by Effie/Haymitch not to and why. It wouldn’t have been hard at all to include more information about the Avoxes that way.

beautiesofafrique:

African Kingdom/Empire of the week: The Songhai/ Songhay Empire

(Images of pre-colonial to modern day Songhai people above)

The Songhai Empire was the largest and last of the three major pre-colonial empires to emerge in West Africa.  From its capital at Gao on the Niger River, Songhai expanded in all directions until it stretched from the Atlantic Ocean to what is now Northwest Nigeria and western Niger.  Gao, Songhai’s capital, which remains to this day a small Niger River trading center, was home to the famous Goa Mosque and the Tomb of Askia, the most important of the Songhai emperors. The cities of Timbuktu and Djenne were the other major cultural and commercial centers of the empire.

The Songhai people founded Gao around 800 A.D.  As the city and region grew in importance, the Malian Empire incorporated both as it expanded across the West African savanna. 

Though the Songhai people are said to have established themselves in the city of Gao about  800 A.D , they did not regard it as their capital until the beginning of the 11th century during the reign of the dia (king) Kossoi, a Songhai convert to Islām. Gao so prospered and expanded during the next 300 years that from 1325 to 1375 the rulers of Mali added it to their empire. In about 1335 the dia line of rulers gave way to the sunni, or shi, one of whom, Sulaiman-Mar, is said to have won back Gao’s independence. The century or so of vicissitudes that followed was ended by the accession in about 1464 of Sonni ʿAlī, also known as ʿAlī Ber (d. 1492). By repulsing a Mossi attack on Timbuktu, the second most important city of Songhai, and by defeating the Dogon and Fulani in the hills of Bandiagara, he had by 1468 rid the empire of any immediate danger. He later evicted the Tuareg from Timbuktu, which they had occupied since 1433, and, after a siege of seven years, took Jenne (Djenné) in 1473 and by 1476 had dominated the lakes region of the middle Niger to the west of Timbuktu. He repulsed a Mossi attack on Walata to the northwest in 1480 and subsequently discouraged raiding by all the inhabitants of the Niger valley’s southern periphery. The civil policy of Sonni ʿAlī was to conciliate the interests of his pagan pastoralist subjects with those of the Muslim city dwellers, on whose wealth and scholarship the Songhai empire depended. His son Sonni Baru (reigned 1493), who sided completely with the pastoralists, was deposed by the rebel Muḥammad ibn Abī Bakr Ture, also known as Muḥammad I Askia (reigned 1493–1528), who welded the central region of the western Sudan into a single empire. He too fought the Mossi of Yatenga, tackled Borgu, in what is now northwestern Nigeria (1505)—albeit with little success—and mounted successful campaigns against the Diara (1512), against the kingdom of Fouta-Toro in Senegal, and to the east against the Hausa states. In order to win control of the principal caravan markets to the north, he ordered his armies to found a colony in and around Agadez in Aïr. He was deposed by his eldest son, Musa, in 1528. Throughout the dynastic squabbles of successive reigns (Askia Musa, 1528–31; Bengan Korei, also known as Askia Muḥammad II, 1531–37; Askia Ismail, 1537–39; Askia Issihak I, 1539–49), the Muslims in the towns continued to act as middlemen in the profitable gold trade with the states of Akan in central Guinea. The peace and prosperity of Askia Dāwūd’s reign (1549–82) was followed by a raid initiated by Sultan Aḥmad al-Manṣūr of Morocco on the salt deposits of Taghaza. The situation, which continued to worsen under Muḥammad Bāni (1586–88), culminated disastrously for Songhai under Issihak II (1588–91) when Moroccan forces, using firearms, advanced into the Songhai empire to rout his forces, first at Tondibi and then at Timbuktu and Gao. Retaliatory guerrilla action of the pastoral Songhai failed to restore the empire, the economic and administrative centres of which remained in Moroccan hands.

At its peak, the Songhai city of Timbuktu became a thriving cultural and commercial center. Arab, Italian, and Jewish merchants all gathered for trade. A revival of Islamic scholarship also took place at the university in Timbuktu. However, Timbuktu was but one of a myriad of cities throughout the empire. By 1500, the Songhai Empire covered over 1.4 million square kilometers

Economic trade existed throughout the Empire, due to the standing army stationed in the provinces. Central to the regional economy were independent gold fields. The Julla (merchants) would form partnerships, and the state would protect these merchants and the port cities of the Niger. It was a very strong trading kingdom, known for its production of practical crafts as well as religious artifacts.

The Songhai economy was based on a clan system. The clan a person belonged to ultimately decided one’s occupation. The most common were metalworkers, fishermen, and carpenters. Lower caste participants consisted of mostly non-farm working immigrants, who at times were provided special privileges and held high positions in society. At the top were noblemen and direct descendants of the original Songhai people, followed by freemen and traders. At the bottom were war captives and European slaves obligated to labor, especially in farming. James Olson describes the labor system as resembling modern day unions, with the Empire possessing craft guilds that consisted of various mechanics and artisans

Upper classes in society converted to Islam while lower classes often continued to follow traditional religions. Sermons emphasized obedience to the king. Timbuktu was the educational capital. Sonni Ali established a system of government under the royal court, later to be expanded by Askia Muhammad, which appointed governors and mayors to preside over local tributary states, situated around the Niger valley. Local chiefs were still granted authority over their respective domains as long as they did not undermine Songhai policy

Tax was imposed onto peripheral chiefdoms and provinces to ensure the dominance of Songhai, and in return these provinces were given almost complete autonomy. Songhai rulers only intervened in the affairs of these neighboring states when a situation became volatile; usually an isolated incident. Each town was represented by government officials, holding positions and responsibilities similar to today’s central bureaucrats.

Under Askia Muhammad, the Empire saw increased centralization. He encouraged learning in Timbuktu by rewarding its professors with larger pensions as an incentive. He also established an order of precedence and protocol and was noted as a noble man who gave back generously to the poor. Under his policies, Muhammad brought much stability to Songhai and great attestations of this noted organization are still preserved in the works of Maghrebin writers such as Leo Africanus, among others

Sources/ Read more: 1| 2| 3

(If you want to know where I got all the images from ask)

image

King Askia Muhammad aka Askia the Great

image

King Sunni Ali Ber 

thisblogisnotgovernmentapproved:

possibly the best purchase i’ve ever made

fatleopard:

 AFROPUNK 2014 BROOKLYN NY BY fatleopard

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